Catatonia Symptoms and Treatment

Here in this post, we are providing insight into “Catatonia Symptoms and Treatment”. You can read Overview, Differences, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Risk Factor. You can discuss your problems in our community, and we will provide you with a short time. Keep visiting Mental Health.

Overviews of Catatonia

Catatonia is a mental condition in which an individual is unable to respond to a given external stimulus and unable to move normally although he/ she is apparently awake.

In catatonia, psychomotor activity is disturbed involving decreased motor activities, engagement during physics examination, and increased odd movements and actions. During severe catatonia, a person needs careful supervision to avoid self-harm and others.

Catatonia - Symptoms, and Treatment
Catatonia – Symptoms, and Treatment

Symptoms & Diagnosis of Catatonia 

Three or more symptoms must be present for diagnostic purposes.

1)    Refusal to speak or very little verbal response

2)    Entirely unresponsive to the external environment.

3)    Catalepsy: Having seizures with loss of sensations and rigidity of the body.

4)    Unable to change his posture and remain in an immobile posture.

5)    No response and opposed to instruction or external environment.

6)    The posture is not maintained against gravity.

7)    Exaggerating Odd actions are carried out

8)    Repeated movement without any cause.

9)    Restlessness or irritability

10) Making different facial expressions of hate.

11) Mimicking others’ speech.

12) Mimicking other’s movements

Catatonia according to DSM 5

Catatonia is not treated as an independent class. It is recognized as catatonia with another mental disorder, catatonia due to another medical condition, and unspecified catatonia. It is mostly used as a specifier for other disorders such as depressive, bipolar, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Types of catatonia

According to researchers, there are three types of catatonia.

  • Akinetic Catatonia
  • Excited Catatonia
  • Malignant Catatonia

Akinetic Catatonia

  • People with this type of catatonia often stare and won’t respond when you speak to them.
  • Sit in the unusual position
  • Not Speak but when speak they repeat your words

Excited Catatonia

  • An individual may move but his motion is purposeless
  • Symptoms include restlessness, irritability, Purposeless movements

Malignant Catatonia

  • More severe form and required immediate treatment.
  • Symptoms consist of sweating, fever,  delirium, and rigidity.
  • Vital signs such as heart rate and breathing rate and blood pressure may vary.

Treatment Of Catatonia 

Following are the treatment for catatonia

  • Medication
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

Medication

Certain Psychotic medication is used to treat Catatonia such as zolpidem, Thyroid hormone, reserpine, muscle relaxants, carbamazepine, amobarbital, Lithium carbonate, benzodiazepines (clonazepam, midazolam & lorazepam), tricyclic antidepressants and Bromocriptine

Atypical antipsychotics should be carefully administered but Neuroleptics should be avoided

Electroconvulsive therapy

In ECT small electric shocks are given to the Catatonic person.

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