Overview of Depressive Disorders

Here in this post, we are providing the “Overview of Depressive Disorders”. You can discuss more your concerns about mental health in our community, and we will provide you with tips and solutions in a short time. Keep visiting Mental Health.

Depressive Disorders

Depressive disorders can be characterized by severe sadness or persistent enough to cause impairment of function, and sometimes a decreased interest in or enjoyment in activities.

 

Overview of depressive disorder
Overview of depressive disorder

Although depressive disorders can occur at any age, they are most common in the teens, 20s, and 30s. Depressive symptoms can be reported by as high as 30% of primary care patients, while only 10% experience major depression.

Although the exact cause of this condition is not known, it could be due to heredity, neurotransmitter changes, altered neuroendocrine functions, or psychosocial factors.

The history is the basis of diagnosis. The treatment usually includes drugs, psychotherapy, or both. Sometimes, electroconvulsive therapy or rapid transcranial magnet stimulation (rTMS) are also used.

Types of Depressive Disorders

There are the following types of depressive disorders such as:

  • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
  • Major depressive disorder (including major depressive episode)
  • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • Substance/medication-induced depressive disorder
  • Depressive disorder due to another medical condition
  • Other specified depressive disorder
  • Unspecified depressive disorder.

Common features of Depressive Disorder

The common features of all of these disorders are

  • Sad
  • Empty or irritable mood
  • Somatic and cognitive changes
  • Impairment in daily functioning

The differs among them are issues of duration, timing, or presumed etiology.

Diagnosis of Depressive Disorders

The diagnostic criteria od depressive disorders consist of :

  • Clinical criteria (DSM-5)
  • Complete blood count (CBC), electrolytes, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, and folate levels to rule out physical disorders that can cause depression.
  • Several brief questionnaires are available for screening.

They help elicit some depressive symptoms but cannot be used alone for diagnosis. Specific close-ended questions help determine whether patients have the symptoms required by DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of major depression.

Treatment of Depressive Disorders

Depressive disorders are treatable. Sometimes depressive disorders are caused due to medical conditions and treatment should be according to the patient’s condition. It is important to consult a psychologist to seek help regarding anxiety.
Following are the treatments used for depressive disorders.

  • Psychotherapy
  • Medication
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Phototherapy
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